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All Glass items shown in this catalogue are manufactured from borosilicate glass 3.3 are widely used as the basis for the construction of complete process systems all over the chemical, dyestuff, food pharmaceutical, and petrochemical industries. The abbreviation for the coefficient of linear expansion which is (3.3 ± 0.1) x 10-6 K-1 . This is lower than any other industrial glass. Since this glass expands less, the tensile stresses in the glass wall during heating are less, which means that it is able to withstand a greater thermal shock and the maximum working pressure for a given operating temperature is greater.

One reason for this widespread used is the special properties of borosilicate glass 3.3 (see below), complemented by the use of other highly corrosion resistant materials such as PTFE and ceramics.


Component % by weight
SiO2 80.6
B2O3 12.5
Na2O 4.2
Al2O3 2.2
Others 0.5


Borosilicate glass 3.3 is highly resistant to water, neutral and acid solutions, concentrated acids and acid mixtures, and to chlorine, bromine, iodine and organic substances. The chemical resistance of this glass is superior to that of most metals and other materials, even when exposed to long processing periods and temperatures above 100°C. At higher temperatures and in more concentrated forms the glass surface is subject to increased attack by hydrofluoric acid, hot phosphoric acid and alkaline solutions.


The very large use of this material throughout the world in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries as well as many other allied areas, is mainly due to its chemical and thermal properties (see also ISO 3585) together with a great number of other benefits that make a distinction borosilicate glass 3.3 from other materials of construction. These include special properties e.g.

Smooth non-porous surface
Outstanding corrosion resistance
No adverse physiological properties
Neutral smell and taste
Catalytic inertness


Borosilicate glass 3.3 differs from other materials of construction used for process plant not only because of its virtually universal resistance to corrosion but also because of its very low thermal expansion coefficient. There is, therefore no need for expensive measures to compensate for thermal expansion resulting from changes in temperature. This becomes of particular significance in the layout of long runs of glass pipeline.

The most important physical properties for the construction of plant are listed below (see also ISO 3585 and EN 1595).

Coefficient of linear thermal expansion 20/300°C (3.3 ± 0.1) x 10-6 K-1

Thermal conductivity between 20 and 200°C 1.3 W m-1K-1

Specific heat capacity between 20 and 100°C 0.8 kJ kg-1 K-1

Specific heat capacity between 20 and 200°C 0.9 kJ kg-1 K-1


The required of ductility of glass prevent the equalization of stresses at local irregularity or flaw and the breakage strength varies considerably about a mean value. This latter is found to occur at a tensile strength of about 700kg/cm²

In order to allow for the spread of breaking stress, the safety factor is applied when determining the wall thickness requirement to allow operation up to values given in the table of working pressure.

Density 2.23 x 103 Kg/m3
Modulus of elasticity E 6500/ mm2
Permissible Tensile and bending stress K/S 6 N /mm2
Permissible Compressive stress K/S 100 N mm-2
Poisson's ratio (transverse contraction figure) $ 0.2


Borosilicate glass 3.3 shows no considerable light absorption in the visible area of the spectrum, and consequently it is clear and colorless.

Borosilicate glass 3.3 in photochemical processes the transparency of ultra violet is of particular importance. It follows from the transmittance of material in ultra violet region that photochemical reactions e.g. chlorination & sulpho chlorination can be performed in it.


All Glass components and complete plant can be operated safely at temperature 200° C provided that there is no sudden temperature shock.

This practical working temperature limit is set by the physical properties of the sideline equipments like gaskets, PTFE bellows, couplings and structure & supports, but not the glass components.


Quick changes in temperature across the walls of glass components should be avoided during operation both indoors and outside. They result in increased thermal stress in the glass, which as described above, has an adverse effect on the permissible operatpressure of the plant components. Although it is not possible to give a definite figure applicable to all the operating conditions likely to be encountered in practice, a maximum permissible thermal shock of 120 K can be taken as a general guide.


The permissible internal operating working pressure depends on the nominal diameter size of glass components and external temperature. The maximum working pressure for a complete glass plant is determined by the lowest rated components in the system. All glass components are suitable at full vacuum over the entire temperature range. Bar g is a measure of absolute pressure.


The glass process plant and pipeline components detailed in this catalogue have standard Flat buttress end as per our standard, which are inter-changeable with any international standard .We can also supply Ball & socket (Spherical end forms), and tapered type buttress end as per international standard on request.

The major dimensions of the safety flat buttress ends can be found in the table below, in conjunction with the illustrations alongside.

Nominal bore DN mm Buttress end diameter D mm Tolerances
25 42.5 (+) 0.0, (-) 1.5
40 57.5 (+) 0.0, (-) 1.5
50 70 (+) 0.0, (-) 1.5
80 99.5 (+) 0.0, (-) 1.5
100 133 (+) 0.0, (-) 2.0
150 185 (+) 0.0, (-) 2.0
200 232 (+) 0.0, (-) 2.0
225 259 (+) 0.0, (-) 2.0
300 340 (+) 1.0, (-) 3.0
400 464 (+) 1.0, (-) 4.0
450 525 (+) 1.0, (-) 4.0

FLANGE DIMENSIONS BALL SOCKET (as per International Standard)

DN d2 (mm) dm° (mm) R6 (mm)
15 30 23 18
25 44 34 25
40 62 51 40
50 76 63 50
80 110 96 80
100 130 116 100
150 184 169 150
200 233 220 200
300 338 321 300
400 465 435 -
450 526 492 -
600 684 646 -
800 916 871 -
1000 1088 1050 -


Though any damaged glass equipment can be repaired, mostly it is not economical to do so. Generally the repair, which involves less than a third of its original work, is worth to carry out repairing. Repair work is costly because:

It generally requires greater skill than making a new one
Since it involves high risk of total breakage, the risk of total loss of time spent on its repairing goes along with.
The work involved in receiving a damaged equipment, identifying it throughout the handling, cleaning it, estimating its repairing charges, re-estimating the repairing charges in case damage extends etc are relatively expensive.
Each job requires individual attention throughout the execution.

However, while sending equipment for repairing, following care must be taken:

Inform the nature of breakage and get an estimate of repairing charges in advance to avoid the loss of transportation expenses in case it is uneconomical to go for repairing.
Since repairing takes longer time to fit into production schedules and completion of repairing is highly uncertain, it is generally suggested to arrange for a substitute equipment to continue the work.
Equipment to be repaired should be clean. Since it can be cleaned better and at less cost at owner's premises. It should be cleaned before sending it for transportation. This also makes it safer to transport.
Pack with extra care, since cracks in glass have a tendency to extend with every jerk.
If Possible, send broken pieces along with it.
Generally rpairing work is accepted only for the equipment manufactured by us, andis repaired at owner's risk only.


Tolerance in length L together with dimension L1, L2 and L3 of all components are as under. Unless otherwise should be specified for given components in this catalogue. All dimensions are in mm in this catalogue, unless otherwise specified.

Nominal Bore DN Length (L, L1, L2, L3)
DN 15 to 40 ± 3 mm
DN 50 to DN 225 ± 3.5 mm
DN 300 to DN 450 ± 4.0 mm
DN 600 ± 5.0 mm


DIN ISO 3585, DIN ISO 3586, DIN ISO 3587, DIN ISO 4704, BSEN 1595,


Key to successful growth oriented business relations between Glass Users & Suppliers. Adopt following Instructions and feel free of stations regarding Glass Plants/Units.

Leakage of Glass Plants / Units
During installation / erection of glass plants / units at your site, provide your one person for required training of tightening assembled glass components in case of any minor leakage in future.
Keep replacing PTFE "O" Rings and Couplings as & when required.
In case of heavy leakage please call us immediately.

End of suppliers Resssponsibility
On installation of glass plants/units & after successful water & vacuum testing the plant/unit, handed over to the buyer. The suppliers cut-off time starts & all responsibilities ends here.

Technical Services
The following technical staff is available on per day charge basis :
(1) Engineer (2) Skilled Fitter (3) Semi Skilled Fitter (4) Helper


Order Confirmation
Place your Order in written form only & ask for written confirmation.

Delivery Schedule
Glass Components are custom made fabricated Items, to attain quality, reasonable specific time is required for making & anneal. Hence plan your requirements well in advance & place order accordingly.

Glass is fragile, breaking risk persists during transit & in-case of any damage, disputes /dissatisfaction starts because offered rates were ex-works. To avoid, pick-up any one facility details as under :-
(1) Transit Insurance, (cost to be charged in Invoice) for transportation of glass components on behalf of buyer & freight on To-pay basis. In case of damage, the buyer is liable to pay Invoiced amount as per terms & conditions to supplier and should get the claim from Insurance company.
(2) Personal delivery facility against lum-sum charges (called as delivery charges) inclusive of freight charges, risk charges & as well delivery boy expenses.

Packing & Forwarding
Proper & safe packing is essential for safety & P&F Charges extra.


All the chemical research teams have used glass containers for a very basic reason - glass is transparent, thereby making the contents and the reactions clearly visible. However, owing to the fact that chemists must heat, cool and mix chemical substances, ordinary glass is not always sufficient for laboratory work.

Laboratory work requires that the apparatus for handling chemicals/media offer maximum inertness when in contact with the widest range of chemical substances. Moreover such apparatus needs to withstand thermal shock without fracture, high temperatures without deformity and mechanical shocks from daily washing and sterilization.

Star scientific glass co. represents optimum thermal, chemical and mechanical behavior. This glass is used in laboratories as well as for industrial applications where maximum thermal, chemical and mechanical resistance is required.


Component % by weight
SiO2 80.6
B2O3 12.5
Na2O 4.2
Al2O3 2.2
Others 0.5


Borosilicate glass is inert to almost all materials except hydroflouric acid (HF) phosphoric acid (H Po ) and hot strong caustic solutions. Of these Hydrochloric acid has the most 3 4 serious effect, even when it is present in PPM parts per million) in solutions. Where as phosphoric acid and caustic solutions cause no problems when cold but at elevated temperature corrosion occurs. In case of caustic solutions up to 30% concentration can be handled safely at ambient temperature.

Under actual operating conditions, the effect of turbulence,and traces of other chemicals in the solution may increase or decrease the rate of attack. So it is not possible to give exact figures for corrosion by caustic solutions.


Linear coefficient of thermal expansion the coefficient of thermal expansion of borosilicate glass over the temperature 0-300° C is 33 x 10-7/°C. This is very low when compared with other glasses and metals. That is why; borosilicate glass is often called low expansion borosilicate glass.


Specific heat between 25°C and 300°C is average to be 0.233Kcal/Kg °C.


Annealing of glass is the process where the glass is heated and kept for a defined period of time to relive internal stresses. Careful cooling under controlled conditions is essential to ensure that no stresses are reintroduced by chilling/cooling.


The lack of ductility of glass prevents the equalization of stresses at local irregularities or flaws and the breakage strength considerably about a mean value. This latter is found to occur at a tensile strength of about 700kg/cm In order to allow for the spread of breaking stress, a large factor of safety is applied when determining the wall thickness requirement to allow operation up to values given in the table of working pressure.


Borosilicate glass considerable absorption in the visible region of spectrum and therefore appears clear and colorless. In photo processes the transparency of ultra violet is of particular importance. It follows from the transmittance of material in UV region that photo chemical reactions such as & sulpho-chlorination can be performed in it.

Selection of Material

In the manufacturing process of Lining, the quality of lining materials and the method of lining are of critical considerations. Metallic parts should never get in contact with corrosive media. Plastics have the unique property by which they do not get dissolved in any known industrial solvent either organic or inorganic. The Fluoropolymer Plastics like PTFE, PFA, PEP, ETFE, PVDF etc. have superior corrosion resistance to practically all the chemicals & solvents and that too at a higher temperatures ranging upto 250 degress Celsius.

The following virgin plastic resins are suitable for respective maximum temperature ratings
FEP: -50 to 170 °C
PTFE: -50 to 200 °C
PP: 0 to 90 °C
PFA: -50 to 200 °C


Our products are designed to quality as per the standards. Our products are used for applications which may be very hazardous and we provide the best manufacturing systems to provide safest quality products to our customers. Our products are tested as per the specification/standard. Our products which gives total confidence to customers for assured performance, reliability and safety.


We shall always be assistance to select, recommend the appropriate lining material and to design the individual piping and equipment components to replace an existing line or for a new installation. On basis of layout drawings, details of piping arrangement and individual parts and sub assemblies drawings shall be submitted showing all the dimensions and construction arrangements for approval.